DR. MANMOHAN SINGH’S UPA (2004-2014) AND SOCIOECONOMIC DIVIDEND

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DR. MANMOHAN SINGH

Dr. MANMOHAN SINGH
DR. MANMOHAN SINGH


DR. MANMOHAN SINGH is not a politician, he is the icon of simplicity and honestly.

He is respectful world renowned economist in the world for his adeptness in management of economy.

Dr. Singh came in focus first time in politics in 1991 when he became finance minister of India in PV Narsinhrao ( then PM of India) government.

In 1991 economical condition of India do worse that India have to sell reserve gold.

DR. MANMOHAN SINGH astuteness played crucial role in the same because of which Indian economy back on track. Government buyback his gold.

As I was too young to understand Dr Singh when they became finance minister of India in 1991.

But, I know better Dr Singh, since, 2004 when they became prime minister of India.

DR. MANMOHAN SINGH led UPA government ruled country 10 years in two successive term.

DR. MANMOHAN SINGH believes in action speak than words. He and his team effort increased pace of Indian economy because of which India became second fastest growing economy in the world.

GDP growth touched double digit in Dr. Singh tenure. As economist Dr. Singh guided economy to grow fast.

Some flagship and welfare programs run by DR. MANMOHAN SINGH UPA government to boost economy

1. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE (SEZ) 2005

SEZs are geographical regions with liberal economic laws compared to the domestic economic laws of a country. In India, special economic zones came to being after the government made a pronouncement announcing the policy in April 2000 with a view to attracting foreign direct investments, creating state-of-the-art infrastructure for business purposes, and allowing trouble-free custom duties.

BENIFITS

A special economic zone not only offers state-of-the-art infrastructure, but it also offers a viable opportunity to a pool of skilled workers, as well as an attractive ROI to both developers and companies. Let’s us take a look at other benefits inherent in a special economic zone

Tax exemption: A SEZ offers 100% tax exemption for a 5 years duration and another extra 2 years tax relief of 50%.

Foreign direct investments in the manufacturing industry are allowed 100% influx through an automatic channel.

Establishment of off-shore banking services

Exemption of Central sales tax and Service tax

Foreign borrowings to the tune of USD$500 million is permitted within a year through an approved banking network

Players do not need the authorization to carry out import

100% FDI in the areas of customary telephone facilities.

No custom tariff when buying raw products, merchandise, as well as spare parts.

No routine inspection by men and officers of the Indian customs for import and export freight

State tax exemption

No levy would be imposed by State Governments

Approvals at both the state and central is a single window.

2.  Right to information act 2005 (RTI)

https://righttoinformation.wiki/blog/benefits-of-rti

RtI is a process designed to help
schools focus on high quality
interventions that are matched to
student needs and monitored on a
frequent basis. The information
gained from an RtI process is used
by school personnel and parents to
adapt instruction and to make
decisions regarding the student’s
educational program.

BENEFITS

Get to know your personal grievances

Improve the situation around yourself

Solve long pending issues of the society

Make your elected representative accountable

Make your Online social presence relevant and helpful

Make connections with Government Officers

Become the News Reporter

3.  BHARAT NIRMAN

Bharat Nirman is a business plan for rural infrastructure which was implemented by the Government of India in order to provide some basic amenities to the rural India.

Accepting the policy ‘a step towards village’, Union Government has launched a new scheme, named ‘Bharat Nirman Yojana’ on December 16, 2005.  This scheme aims at developing rural infrastructure. This yojna is governed by the Ministry of Rural Development

Irrigation: To ensure irrigation for additional one crore hectare of land by 2009.

Roads: To link all villages of 1000 population with roads and also to link all ST and hilly villages upto 500 population with roads. Upto December 2012 a total of 47354 habitations have been connected under Bharat Nirman out of 63940 habitations to be connected while works for 60421 habitations is sanctioned.

Housing: Construction of 60 lakh additional houses for the poor. Under Bharat Nirman Programme Phase-I, 60 lakh houses were envisaged to be constructed under Indira Gandhi Avas Yojana all over the country during the four years i.e., from 2005-06 to 2008-09. Against this target, 71.76 lakh houses were constructed with an expenditure of Rs. 21720.39 crore. Target for Phase-II under Bharat Nirman is 120 lakh houses over a period of 5 years (2009-10 to 2013-14). During the first three years more than 85.72 lakh houses have been constructed.

Water Supply: To ensure drinking water to all remaining 74000 villages.

Electrification: To supply electricity to all remaining 125000 villages & to provide electricity connection to 2.3 crore houses.

Rural Communication : To provide telephone facility to all remaining 66822 villages.

4. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME (NREGA)  2005

Mahatma Gandhi Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA No 42, later renamed as the “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”, MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’. This act was passed in September 2005 under the UPA government of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.

The MGNREGA was initiated with the objective of “enhancing livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year, to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work”.

Another aim of MGNREGA is to create durable assets (such as roads, canals, ponds and wells). Employment is to be provided within 5 km of an applicant’s residence, and minimum wages are to be paid. If work is not provided within 15 days of applying, applicants are entitled to an unemployment allowance.

That is, if the government fails to provide employment, it has to provide certain unemployment allowances to those people. Thus, employment under MGNREGA is a legal entitlement.

5.  JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION (JNNURN)

The scheme was officially inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005 as a programme meant to improve the quality of life and infrastructure in the cities.

It was launched in 2005 for a seven-year period (up to March 2012) to encourage cities to initiate steps for bringing phased improvements in their civic service levels.

The government had extended the tenure of the mission for another two years, i.e from April 2012 to March 31, 2014.

JNNURM was a huge mission which relates primarily to development in the context of urban conglomerates focusing to the Indian cities.

JnNURM aims at creating ‘economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive Cities’ by a strategy of upgrading the social and economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.

6.  RIGHT TO EDUCATION (RTE)  ACT 2009 

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution.

India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the Act came into force on 1 April 2010.

Feature of Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009
The RTE Act aims to provide primary education to all children aged 6 to 14 years.

It enforces Education as a Fundamental Right (Article 21).

The act mandates 25% reservation for disadvantaged sections of the society where disadvantaged groups include:

SCs and STs

Socially Backward Class

Differently abled

It also makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.

It also states that sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.

It lays down the norms and standards related to:

Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs)

Buildings and infrastructure

School-working days

Teacher-working hours.

It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.

It provides for the appointment of teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.

It prohibits 

Physical punishment and mental harassment

Screening procedures for admission of children

Capitation fee

Private tuition by teachers

Running of schools without recognition

It focuses on making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centred learning.

7.  FOOD SECURITY ACT 2013

The National Food Security Act, 2013 (also Right to Food Act) is an Act of the Parliament of Indiawhich aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of India’s 1.2 billion people. It was signed into law on 12 September 2013, retroactive to 5 July 2013.[2][3]

Silent features

Coverage and entitlement under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) : Up to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population will be covered under TPDS, with uniform entitlement of 5 kg per person per month.

However, since Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households constitute poorest of the poor, and are presently entitled to 35 kg per household per month, entitlement of existing AAY households will be protected at 35 kg per household per month

.State-wise coverage : Corresponding to the all India coverage of 75% and 50% in the rural and urban areas, State-wise coverage will be determined by the Central Government. Planning Commission has determined the State-wise coverage by using the NSS Household Consumption Survey data for 2011-12.

Subsidised prices under TPDS and their revision :Foodgrains under TPDS will be made available at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per kg for rice, wheat and coarse grains for a period of three years from the date of commencement of the Act.

Thereafter prices will be suitably linked to Minimum Support Price (MSP). In case, any State’s allocation under the Act is lower than their current allocation, it will be protected up to the level of average offtake under normal TPDS during last three years, at prices to be determined by the Central Government.

Existing prices for APL households i.e. Rs. 6.10 per kg for wheat and Rs 8.30 per kg for rice has been determined as issue prices for the additional allocation to protect the average offtake during last three years.

Identification of Households : Within the coverage under TPDS determined for each State, the work of identification of eligible households is to be done by States/UTs.

Nutritional Support to women and children :Pregnant women and lactating mothers and children in the age group of 6 months to 14 years will be entitled to meals as per prescribed nutritional norms under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) schemes.

Higher nutritional norms have been prescribed for malnourished children up to 6 years of age.

Maternity Benefit : Pregnant women and lactating mothers will also be entitled to receive maternity benefit of not less than Rs. 6,000.

Women Empowerment : Eldest woman of the household of age 18 years or above to be the head of the household for the purpose of issuing of ration cards.

Grievance Redressal

Mechanism : Grievance redressal mechanism at the District and State levels. States will have the flexibility to use the existing machinery or set up separate mechanism.

Cost of intra-State transportation & handling of foodgrains and FPS Dealers’ margin : Central Government will provide assistance to States in meeting the expenditure incurred by them on transportation of foodgrains within the State, its handling and FPS dealers’ margin as per norms to be devised for this purpose.

Transparency and Accountability : Provisions have been made for disclosure of records relating to PDS, social audits and setting up of Vigilance Committees in order to ensure transparency and accountability.

Food Security Allowance : Provision for food security allowance to entitled beneficiaries in case of non-supply of entitled foodgrains or meals.

Penalty : Provision for penalty on public servant or authority, to be imposed by the State Food Commission, in case of failure to comply with the relief recommended by the District Grievance Redressal Officer.

8.  NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH MISSION (NRHM) 2005

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched on 12th April 2005, to provide accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups.

OBJECTIVES

Reduction of infant mortality and maternal mortality.

Universal access to public health services such as women’s health, child health, drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and universal immunization.

Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Population stabilization,gender & demographic balance.

Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care.

Promotion of healthy lifestyles

Later it converted into National health mission in 2013.

NATIONAL HEALTH MISSION

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Health_Mission

The National Health Mission (NHM) was launched by the government of India in 2013 subsuming the National Rural Health Mission and National Urban Health Mission. It was further extended in March 2018, to continue until March 2020. It is headed by Mission Director and monitored by National Level Monitors appointed by Government of India.

9. ECONOMY

1. INCREASE IN PER CAPITA INCOME
2. ACCELERATED GROWTH OF ECONOMY AND HELP GDP TO TOUCH DOUBLE DIGITS
3. INDIA BECAME FASTEST GROWING ECONOMY IN THE WORLD ONLY AFTER CHINA DURING UPA GOVERNMENT TENURE

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